The Heruls in Scandinavia

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The Heruls - Main article (16 pages)
Herulerne - Dansk version (16 sider)
The Heruls - Detailed article (pdf) (ca. 147 pages)
The Lister Stones and the Heruls (16 pages)
The Roek Stone (24 pages)
The English articles are found at too.
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The movements of the Heruls

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Published June 15 2000 - Updated April 11 2018

Troels Brandt -

The destiny of the Heruls in Scandinavia has been a mystery for centuries, but it is possible to explain their role if we disregard the old misinterpretations caused by local pride and patroicism.

The Heruls were first time mentioned north of the Black Sea, and they followed later the Huns as an East Germanic people. They settled in the 5th century in Mähren / Moravia where they apparently performed as a warrior class. Here they became feared as Roman mercenaries and terrorized their neighbours - possibly joined by Scandinavian warriors - until they were defeated by the Lombards 508/9 AD. After the defeat a group chose to join the East Roman emperors as mercenaries and were baptized. Another group joined the royal family against the Scandinavian Peninsula, which they knew from their Moravian position at the route to the Baltic Sea and from their earlier pagan companions from Scandinavia, who had also joined the Huns. A smaller group, the Western Heruls, were met since 286 AD at the North Sea coast. They became known there as Roman mercenaries and later as pirates until they disappeared in the 5th century.

To day their history in Southern Europe is settled as much as it is possible with the sparse sources, but their connections with Scandinavia are eagerly discussed due to the earlier mistakes, where conservative Scandinavian scholars need to turn their old view upside down, while the leading international scholars are approaching a consensus regarding their presence in Scandinavia:

1. No indication of a Scandinavian origin of the Heruls: The earlier claim about a Scandinavian origin before 200 AD was a linguistic and logical mistake in 1783 reading the text of Jordanes. He mentioned that the Danes expelled the Heruls from their settlements, but in the same work he provided them with an ethymology from the Black Sea. The expulsion is now by international historians and linguists regarded as a recent event, when Jordanes wrote in 551 AD. Procopius just told they used to dwell beyound the Danube from old. Already Lauritz Weibull warned in 1925 about their so called Scandinavian origin.

2. The presence of the royal Herulian family in Scandinavia in the 6th century is regarded to be verified: Procopius' 40 years old narratives about their journey to Scandinavia after the defeat in 508/9 AD were told for centuries. Modern scholars have been sceptical regarding the verification of these narratives, but when Jordanes' expulsion was changed to a recent event the focus turned against an event contemporary with the authors. Procopius told that a Herulian envoy from the group in the East Roman Empire in 548 AD was sent to their defeated royal family in Scandinavia to bring back a new king. They returned with a prince pushing aside Suartuas - the Herulian candidate of the Roman emperor Justinian, who had to restore him as commander of Constantinople. This story must have been "hot stuff" in Constantinople, when both Procopius and Jordanes finished their works in the city within the next 5 years - both telling about the Heruls meeting the Danes in Scandinavia. Procopius could not lie about the envoy passing the Danes to pick up new royal familymembers in Thule to the Illyrian Heruls, when all his readers knew the truth - and Jordanes at the same time confirmed that the Heruls met the Danes in Scanza. We have in this way two contemporary sources with opposite motives telling about the Herulian presence in Scandinavia - we could not expect a better evidence from that time. We may believe the old narratives or not, but in their history most international historians do now include the envoy and its retrieval of the royal family in Scandinavia in 548 AD - which is even supported by archaelogical traces both ways. Consequently the target of the narratives is confirmed - the Moravian family must have moved and settled there and just a specifically selected part returned with the envoy 38 years later. We still need to make reservations for the details of the old narratives, but the main lines appear to be reliable.

As trained Roman soldiers they had undoubtedly an impact where they settled - in Sweden it is not an "if" - it is a question how many they were and where they settled down. However a Swedish professor in English language wrote that they all went back with the envoy, though the envoy first had to go back for a new candidate, when the first died. Pretty illogical as much else in the article, but the Swedish scholars grabbed his article as an alibi to claim that all development is Swedish until the opposite is proven - and then nobody searched for the Heruls, who are neglected by most Scandinavian scholars.

The hypotheses of this paper is that the Heruls first settled in Blekinge / Värend / Scania, but before 548 AD most of them were expelled further away by the Danes as mentioned by Jordanes. Most likely the next target for a main part of the group was the expanding economi of Uppland which flourished as an international, religious and military centre in the following centuries. Probably they simply served as mercenaries and military advisors as they did in the Roman Empire. When they were integrated in the Nordic societies their name disappeared and most likely it became the title earl.

Beowulf, Widsith and Saxo contain distaint memories of the expulsion which probably provoked the establishing of the kingdom of the Danes, but these works cannot be regarded as history. Consequently, the destiny of these trained and frightening mercenaries has been discussed for centuries.

The web site consists of a shorter main article in English and Danish, a detailed article in pdf in English with notes and references - all versions are using the same numbers in the index in order to make it possible to find references when reading the short articles.

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